Actian PSQL v12 Licensing Primer
The licensing for the PSQL database engine can get VERY confusing for certain configurations, so we have put together this description of how Actian licenses their product.
Please read this information carefully! Actian does NOT allow product returns on their software once it is delivered! If you order the wrong product, you may need to order the correct version and have no recourse for returns. Goldstar Software is the premier reseller in the United States, but we must still work within the rules provided by Actian. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact us or Actian Corporation directly at 800-BTRIEVE *before* you place your order!
If you want to see the end user license agreement before purchase, you can find the license documents here.
Single Machine Licenses
With the exception of the MultiHost Licenses, each PSQL engine license purchased may be used on ONE computer only, so if you have two computers hosting database files, you'll need two licenses. If you have multiple users sharing access to the same set of database files, then you would purchase one license (to go on the computer with the data) with a proper user count or size for your environment.
Definition of a "User"
In the PSQL engine license model, a "user" is considered a unique network address that is accessing the database engine. The number of users is limited by the engine type and license purchased. For example, if I have applications running on 3 workstations and accessing the same database engine on a remote server, I need a minimum of 3 user licenses. If I have applications running on 8 workstations AND a service running on the database server that is also accessing the database, then I need a minimum of 9 user licenses.
Note that Terminal Services and Citrix sessions are counted as separate users. So, If I have one Terminal Server which is hosting 18 concurrent user logon sessions, each running a database application, then I must have a minimum of 18 user licenses.
The user count is concurrent -- this means that I can have 50 workstations installed and configured in my environment, but if I have only 20 that will access the database applications at the same time, then I only need 20 user licenses. Any users attempting to access the database above the licensed maximium will get a Status 161 (Too Many Users) error code. It is up to the application to trap and report that error properly.
Your first goal in selecting the right PSQL license for your environment is to determine which engine type you need. The PSQL database can be purchased in three different license types, namely the Workgroup Engine, the Server Engine, or the Vx Server Engine. Let's look at these three differences briefly here:
The Workgroup Engine is designed for stand-alone machines, machines accessing local database files (like in a POS system), and for small networks of less than 5 concurrent users. You can NOT build a multi-user Workgroup system for more than 5 users at the same time! If you think you will expand to more than 5 users at some point, we recommend purchasing one of the other two license types instead.
The Server Engine is designed for larger, multi-user environments of 6 concurrent users or more. It offers a number of additional features over the Workgroup Engine that pertain mainly to performance and scalability, including:
- Operating System Security: The Server Engines enforce user access rights to database files. With the Workgroup Engine, if you know where the file resides, you can access it. If you need more security, you should avoid the Workgroup Engine.
- Asynchronous I/O Disk Writes: The Server Engines use this method of writing data to the disk in order to obtain increased performance over the Workgroup Engine. Workgroup environments are usually smaller, and may not benefit as much from this extra feature.
- 64-Bit Capability: The Workgroup Engine is available in 32-bit model only. The Server Engines can leverage all of the improvements in the 64-bit memory model, providing substantially better performanmce for larger environments.
Vx Server Engine
The Vx Server Engine uses the same core database engine as the normal ("mainline") Server Engine, but it uses a different licensing model. The differences in the licensing models are shown here:
- SaaS License: If you are selling your software in a hosted environment for multiple companies, you are implementing the Software as a Service (SaaS) model. In this case, you must use the PSQL Vx licensing model for your environment.
- Multiplexing License: If you are utilizing a middleware software layer (often called a "thin client" solution) that is providing database access for multiple users in other environments, including web servers, you must use the PSQL Vx licensing model for your environment.
- Capacity-Based Licensing: Unlike the Workgroup and Server engines, which track users by unique network address, the PSQL Vx Server 12 license is based on the database engine capacity, which is the size of the database files currently in use in GB. Licenses are currently available in several sizes, including 5GB, 20GB, 50GB, and Unlimited, and data size increases are available in sizes of 1GB, 5GB, 10GB, and 50GB. Note that the capacity-based PSQL Vx Server 12 license does NOT track user counts or sessions.
Side Note: The Vector database (from the Actian Analytics Platform) does NOT have any user restrictions, and it has a flat 1TB data size limit. As such, users accessing the Vector environment will NOT impact your PSQL license in any way. As a result, migrating a copy of your database to Vector may not only provide you with a high-speed reporting solution, but it can also keep your user count down. If you have a web-based reporting need as well, you can leverage Vector for the web site database too, and continue to use the user-based PSQL licensing.
License Platforms and Bit Levels
The Workgroup Engine is available only in a 32-bit Windows version.
The Server Engines (PSQL v12 and PSQL Vx Server 12) are available in three distinct platforms:
- Windows 32-bit
- Windows 64-bit
- Linux 64-bit (Note: Linux systems MUST be 64-bit to run v12.)
All licenses are platform-agnostic, which means that your purchased license will work on ANY platform of PSQL v12 that you install. It is possible to run the 32-bit Windows Workgroup engine on a 64-bit operating system -- it will just run in 32-bit mode with all the capabilities and limitations that mode provides.
Workgroup Engine User Count Increases
The Workgroup Engine, as previously stated, supports a maximum of 5 concurrent users. It should be licensed for the number of concurrent workstations that will be accessing the database engine simultaneously. The current "base" licenses available are 1U, 3U, and 5U.
If you purchase a smaller user count, then you can increase the user count by adding a User Count Increase (UCI) in quantities of +1U or +2U. Note that you cannot get over 5 concurrent users -- this is a stated maximum for the WGE. Thus, buying a 5U license and trying to add +2U will result in an error.
Server Engine User Count Increases
The Server Engine can be licensed for a number of users starting at 6U and going up from there. The current "base" licenses available are 6U, 10U, 20U, 50U, 100U, 250U, and 500-User.
If you purchase a smaller user count, then you can increase the user count by adding a User Count Increase (UCI) in quantities of 6U, 10U, 20U, 50U, 100U, 250U and 500U. Thus, it is possible to build a 12U, 16U, 18U, 22U, 24U or other intermediate user counts. However, economies of scale will kick in due to the reduced pricing of the Server Engine for the larger user counts, so this seldom makes sense. In many cases, it may be cheaper to simply over-size the license to the next user count and avoid using UCI's, which can save you money on future upgrades as well. As such, we recommend checking all of your options carefully to identify the price points of every eligible configuration before purchasing.
Vx Server Engine Data Size Increases
Like the Server Engine, the Vx Server engine can experience growth as well. This can be done via a Size Upgrade (move from one size to a larger size) or via a Data Size Increase. Size Upgrades are usually the better deal, because this makes you eligible for a upgrade pricing on a future version at the larger size. However, the Data Size Increases (available in 1GB, 5GB, 10GB, and 50GB) may be a more cost effective way to add data size to your Vx license, as they are also available in temporary (60-day) license packs.
Server Engine Upgrades
If you are upgrading from an older version of PSQL Server or PSQL Vx Server, you may be eligible for an upgrade discount. (Upgrades are not available for the Workgroup Engines.) You are eligible to upgrade to the SAME base license count you have today, or to the NEXT USER COUNT HIGHER.
However, you can ONLY upgrade to the "base" licenses of 6U, 10U, 20U, 50U, 100U, 250U and 500U. You cannot use an upgrade discount from or towards a UCI. While you cannot upgrade your user count increases, moving to the next higher size allows you to up-size your engine when you upgrade, often for a substantial savings.
Note that PSQL Vx Server 12 upgrades are allowable from PSQL Vx Server 11x, PSQL v12, and PSQL v11 licenses. When upgrading from the "mainline" products, only specific upgrade combinations are allowed. For example, a 6U or 10U license can only upgrade to a Vx Small license. Please check the price sheets for more details on allowable upgrade configurations.
Sample Workgroup Engine License Configurations
Let's review a few examples in configuring the Workgroup Engine:
Single, Stand-Alone Machine: Simply purchase a 1-User WGE (P12WGE1).
Four Users Accessing Shared Data on a Windows Server with Processes Running on the Server: If something will be running on the server that accesses the database, like an automated data transfer application, then you will really have 5 computers total accessing the system, and you'll need 5 licenses. Purchase a 5U WGE, install it to the server, and place the Pervasive client on the 4 workstations. This is the best configuration for performance and stability. (P12WGE5)
Four Users Accessing Shared Data on a Windows Server with NO Processes Running on the Server: With the server not running any PSQL applications, you don't need to include it in your user count. Like the above, you would need to license ONE machine, the database server,but you only need 4 licenses. If you never expect to install a fifth computer, you can buy a 3U base license and a +1U UCI (for a total of 4 users). Install these licenses to the server and put the client on the others. (P12WGE3, P12WGE+1)
Four Users Accessing Shared Data on a Windows Server AND Accessing Local Database Files: This configuration is common for POS applications or other such environments where the machines need to work standalone or otherwise store files locally. This is actually a combination of the above scenario and the stand-alone scenario. For this configuration, the server (or primary gateway machine) must be licensed for at least 4 users, so you'll either need 5U or 3U+1U for the "main" machine. Each POS system will then need a local engine for accessing its own local files, so the other three computers will each need a 1U WGE. (P12WGE5 and three P12WGE1)
Four Users Accessing Shared Data on a non-Windows Server with NO Processes Running on the Server: With the server not running any PSQL applications, you can even leverage a NetWare or NAS device for storage of the database files (though we do not recommend this configuration for performance and stability reasons). You would purchase a WGE with licenses for 4 users (3U, +1UCI) and install it to the fastest machine. Unfortunately, the current PSQL Client cannot handle this configuration correctly, so you must ALSO install and license the Workgroup Engine on each machine. Each of these can be a 1U Workgroup Engine (P12WGE1). Note that for this to work properly, you will need to use the Gateway Locator tool to lock down the gateway for the database directory to the machine with the database engine.
If you have other Workgroup Engine configurations that you would like clarification on, please let us know!
Sample Server Engine License Configurations
Let's review a few examples in configuring the Server Engine:
Windows 32-bit Server with a Maximum of 10 Concurrent Users: Purchase a 10U Server Engine for the server, and install the Pervasive client to each workstation. (P12S010)
Windows 64-bit Server with a Maximum of 35 Concurrent Users: You can either purchase a 50U Server Engine (and have room for 15 more), or a 20U Server Engine and a +20U UCI and have room for 5 more. (It is possible, but simply NOT cost-effective to buy a 20U engine, a +10U UCI, and a +6U UCI.) (P12S050, or P12S020 and P12S020UCI)
Linux 64-bit Server with 18 Concurrent Users, and Three Laptops that Can Store Local Copies of the Data: The server side is easy -- get a 20U Server Engine and install the Pervasive client to each workstation. However, for the three laptops which will be able to take data "on the road", get three additional 1U WGE licenses. (P12S020 and three P12WGE1)
Note that the above recommendations assume that you are not implementing SaaS, web, or multiplexing environments. So, let's look at a few more configurations:
Windows 64-bit Server with a Maximum of 150 Local Users and 100 concurrent Web Sessions, Accessing a Database of 40GB: With the use of a web server, you must get into the PSQL Vx license model. With 40GB of data, You can either purchase a PSQL Vx Large (50GB) and have room for 10GB or database growth, or you can get a PSQL Vx Medium (20GB) and two +10GB DSI licenses to get to 40GB total. The former solution (VX12WL) is a bit more expensive than the 40GB solution (VX12WM, VX12W+10, VX12W+10), but will save money if the data grows over 40GB in the future.
Windows 64-bit Server with a Maximum of 400 Concurrent Users, Accessing a Database of 4GB: Without SaaS or other requirement to use to the PSQL Vx license model, one would normally gravitate to the PSQL v12 license model. However, the high cost of the 500-User PSQL v12 license make it clear that the capacity-based PSQL Vx Server 12 Small license is your much better option. (VX12WS)
Finding the Right Solution For Product Upgrades
Upgrades increase the confusion a bit, and it may be challenging to find the cheapest option. Avoid the confusion, and let us help you determine what is needed! Contact us with the following information, and we can determine the best way to make your upgrade happen:
- Original PSQL Engine Version
- Original PSQL Engine User Counts
- Desired PSQL Engine Version and Platform
- Desired PSQL Engine User Count
- Desired PSQL Database Size
- Use of SaaS, Web, or Middleware Environments
Be sure to do this for EACH server that you have, to ensure thast we find you the right licensing in the end.